Saturday, 30 March 2019
Tuesday, 4 August 2015
Knowledge is defined as a link for people who make his/her mind between the application and information in a confined place. Knowledge occurs by the value that is added to the organization by categorizing, contextualizing and calculating the data. Information is also sometimes termed as knowledge when it is processed in the minds of people. This knowledge is again turned to information when it is communicated to others in the form of text, writing or words.
Characteristics of Knowledge Transfer
There are many characteristics that affect the transfer of knowledge in an organization; they are classified into two type’s namely situational characteristics and knowledge characteristics. A knowledge characteristic consists of a system user and the receiver by the organization. The risk that is faced by the organization in the transfer of knowledge is termed as stickiness in knowledge or knowledge stickiness. The methods and concepts involved in the process of knowledge transfer results in the stickiness during the construction of knowledge and it is also used to solve the issues while the knowledge is transferred in an organization [Dixon.H, 2000]. The stickiness in the process of knowledge transfer is based upon the following characteristics, they are knowledge character, sender and receiver and the growth between the sender and receiver [Wang et al, 2001]. While knowledge transfer is taking place, the above aspects are important to handle the stickiness carefully in order to enhance the process of knowledge transfer successfully.
The factors that affect the situational characteristics are source, recipient and the organizational context in an organization. The knowledge source is the initial factor of the process and their main aim is to transfer the knowledge since it is the most important factor for the success of an organization [Ghaziri .M, 2004]. Another aspect of the source which affects the transfer is the reliability of the knowledge transfer. The final source of aspect in situational characteristics is to complete the process of knowledge transfer.
Thus the knowledge transfer is the concept and fact that are present in the people’s minds. Knowledge transfer also aims at the process of communication that involves both information transmissions to the recipient and sender by a group or person in the organization. Therefore it is revealed from above that the role of knowledge transfer is the ability to act and also it evaluates the new information in an organization.
1. Dixon.H Common Knowledge: How Companies Thrive By Sharing Knowledge,
2. Awad.E.M and Ghaziri.M (Knowledge Management, Pearson Education, NJ, 2004.
3. Wang et al, Introduction to Knowledge Management: Principles and Practice, Tapir Academic Press,
Data management is defined as the process in which the data or information undergoes validation, storing, processing and protected in order to satisfy the requirements of the end users. Data is the heart of the information and it acts as a primary source of model through which the entire world is operating. It is also termed as the process of executing the procedures and policies that are needed for the effective management of the information or data.
Emerging Technologies for Effective Data Management
There are many technologies that are used for the effective management of data out of which some important technologies are discussed here. The first technology is the Usage of programs that are scripted for the analysis of data or information. In this method the data is thoroughly processed and analyzed to provide a metadata .In this technique the data can be revised at any point of time since a record will be created from the time of data collected till the publish [Gordon.K, 2007]. The second technology is the storage of data in the form of non proprietary software and hardware. In this technique the data stored will remain for many decades even when the software is lost. But if the data is stored in proprietary software or hardware the data will disappear if the software is lost and it is difficult to open the files [Mehdi.K, 1998]. The third method used for the effective data management is the usage of descriptive names for the files that contain data [Mathew.B, 2001]. This technique is the quickest way to represent the data in the file. This method consists of two approaches to be followed for effective management of data namely the first one is that the file name should not be long and the second one is that there should be space between the file names.
Thus from the above technologies mentioned it is revealed that the data can be effectively managed and it can be made free from errors and it also can be structured still more effectively for the analysis process. More importantly it is more interpretable for future research and for the management of the data. Hence these technologies are very useful to revise the data even in future and it can also be used for research purposes for many decades.
1. Gordon.K Principles of Effective Data Management, British Informatics Society Limited,
2. Mathew.B Effective Management Of Data,
, 2001 California University, CA
3. Mehdi.K Effective Data Management and Emerging Technologies, Idea Publishing,
New York, 1998
Ratio is a term which indicates the association between any of the two inter - connected variables. That is, the ratios use to institute the association among two items that are stated in quantitative form. The ratio analysis is the analysis of financial statements (balance sheet, profit and loss statement, cash flow statement etc.) of the firms of a specific period and interpreting of financial results with the assistance of available ratios. In finance, a ratio is termed as an association between 2 numbers of similar type which generally uttered as a: b or ‘a to b’.
In ratio analysis, the financial ratios act as a tool. The required data for the ratio analysis used to be gathered from the financial statements of the firm. Generally, the ratio analyses are used to determine the financial safety and financial condition of a firm. The ratio analysis is considered as an essential technique to institute the association between two accounting numbers in order to highlight the important data to the management and the users who could assess the condition of the business and to view their concert in an expressive way. There are various analyses and researches (for example, Minter et al Eds. 1982; Kumbirai & Webb, 2010) on the use of ratio analysis in evaluating the financial performance of the firms. Added to that, the ratio analysis assists in the firms’ budgeting, long – term planning, strengthening the financial performance through asset management etc.
The ratios in the ratio analysis are classified into various types. They are liquidity ratio or quick ratio or liquid ratio or acid test ratio, solvency or financial structure or capital structure ratio, profitability ratio, activity ratio or efficiency ratio and coverage ratio.
Thus, it is clearly understood that ratio analysis helps in analyzing each and every financial aspect of a firm starting from its assets to liabilities and debt. This helps in understanding the financial condition and complete performance of an entity.
Minter et al Eds. (1982), Using ratio analysis to evaluate financial performance, New Directions for Higher Education, Issue 38, .
Kumbirai & Webb (2010), A financial Ratio Analysis of Commercial Bank Performance in South Africa, African Review of Economics and Finance, Print Services, Rhodes University, Vol. 2, No. 1.
Tuesday, 28 July 2015
Introduction to Cloud Computing:
Cloud computing can be referred as a new computing style in which dynamically scalable and always virtualized resources are offered as a service over internet. Cloud computing has become an essential trend of technology and several professionals expect that cloud computing will reshape information technology marketplace and information technology processes.
Benefits of Cloud Computing:
According to Armburst et al (2010) the most essential benefit of cloud computing is that firms can reduce their expenditures of capital and use operational expenditures for developing their capabilities of computing. This is a lower obstacle to entry and also needs fewer in house information technology resources to offer system assistance. Another benefit of cloud computing is that firms can initiate with a little deployment and develop at a big deployment rapidly and scale back if essential. Buyya et al (2009) has mentioned that the cloud computing flexibility permits firms to use additional resources at peak times enhancing them to fulfill the demands of customers. Maintenance, is also one of the benefits of cloud computing. The providers of cloud service perform the maintenance of system and access through application programming interfaces that do not need installations of applications onto personal computers. With the technology of cloud computing users use different devices involving laptops, personal computers, personal digital assistants and smart phones to access programs, application development and storage platforms over internet through services provided by the providers of cloud computing. Mather, Kumaraswamy and Latif (2009) have described that the features of cloud computing involves wide access of network, on demand self service, rapid elasticity, measured service and resource pooling. Another benefit is reliability where the services using numerous redundant sites can assist disaster recovery and continuity of business. The last benefit of cloud computing is mobile accessibility where mobile employees have developed productivity because of system accessible in an infrastructure feasible from anywhere.
Cloud computing develops profitability by developing utilization of resources. Costs are reduced by providing proper resources only for the time those resources are required. Cloud computing is altering the way information technology departments purchase information technology. Businesses have an extent of paths to the cloud involving platforms, infrastructure and applications that are accessible from providers of cloud as online services.
Armbrust, M., Fox, A., Griffith, R., Joseph, A.D., Katz, R., Konwinski, A., Lee, G., atterson, D., Rabkin, A., Stoica, I. and Zaharia, M. (2010) A View of Cloud Computing, Communications of the ACM, 53, 4, 50-58.
Buyya, R., Yeo, C.S., Venugopal, S., Broberg, J. and Brandic, I. (2009) Cloud Computing and Emerging IT Platforms: Vision, Hype, and Reality for Delivering Computing as the 5th Utility, Future Generation Computer Systems, 25, 6, 599-616.
Mather, T., Kumaraswamy, S and Latif S (2009), Cloud security and privacy. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, Inc
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a multiple access and modulation scheme based on the communication of spread-spectrum. CDMA is a new concept in the advanced wireless communications and digital cellular radio communications.
CDMA IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION:
With CDMA, each signal comprises various pseudo-random binary sequences which set the carrier and spreads the waveform spectrum. CDMA is a system of direct sequence spread spectrum. Numerous CDMA signals share the same spectrum of frequency. If CDMA is viewed either in the time or frequency domain, the signals of multiple access appear to be on topmost of each other. The multiple access signals are separated at the receiver with the help of correlator that permits only signal energy from the selected sequence of binary and despreads its spectrum. The system of CDMA works directly on digital signals like 64 Kbit/Sec. These signals may be ISDN channels, digitized voice, modem data and more (Adachi et al., 1998).
According to Viterbi (1995) CDMA changes the subscriber station nature from an analog to digital device. CDMS receivers do not neglect analog processing completely, but they separate channels of communication by a means of a modulation of pseudo-random which is applied and removed in the domain of digital, non on the frequency basis. Multiple users occupy the band of the same frequency. CDMS is changing the face of PCS and cellular communication by improving the voice quality and removing the audible multipath fading effects, improving the capacity of telephone traffic, minimizing the incidence of dropped calls since handoff failures, providing reliable mechanism of transport for data communications like internet traffic, facsimile, simplifying site selection, reducing the number of sites required to support any provided amount of traffic, reducing the operating and deployment costs since fewer cells sites are required, minimizing average transmitted power, reducing potential health risks and minimizing interference to the other electronic devices (Sari et al., 2000).
It is concluded that CDMA is a radio access system and digital modulation which employs frequency bands in order to arrange continuous and simultaneous access to a wireless network by multiple users.
1. Adachi.F, Sawahashi.M and Suda.H (1998), Wideband DS-CDMA for Next- Generation Mobile Communication Systems”, IEEE Communication, Mag., vol.36, pp. 56-59.
2. Sari.H, Vanhaverbeke.F, Moeneclaey.M (2000), “Multiple access using two sets of orthogonal signal waveforms,” IEEE Communication. Lett., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 4-6.
3. Viterbi. A (1995), CDMA: Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication Addison-Wesley Wireless Communications Series.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a managerial philosophy which helps to build a long term relationships with potential customers. Maintaining customer relationships is essential and valuable to the business organizations.
CRM IN BANKING SECTOR:
Stone et al (2002) point out that most sectors of the financial services were trying to implement the customer relationship management techniques in order to reach their goals. Banks were trying adopt these techniques of CRM such as create customer-centric culture and organization, integrate communications and supplier that is customer interactions across the channels, maximize customer profitability, secure customer relationships, identify sales prospects and opportunities, support pricing, channel management and migration, manage the value of customer by developing propositions aimed at various groups of customers and support cross and up-selling initiatives. Successful CRM concentrates on understanding the requirements and desires of the customer and this can be fulfilled by placing these requirements at the business heart by integrating them with organization’s technology, strategy, people and business processes.
Customer relationship management is a sound business strategy in order to find out the bank’s most profitable prospects and customers and banks have to spend time and attention in expanding the long term relationship with customers through individualized reprising, marketing, customized service and discretionary decision making through the different sales channels that the banks uses. Any financial institution which is trying to adopt a model for customer relationship then they should consider six key requirements for the business such as create a customer-focused infrastructure and organization, assess the lifetime customer value, gaining accurate picture of various customers, maximize the profitability in each and every customer relationship, perceive how to attract and retain the best customers and maximize the return rate on marketing campaigns (Chary and Ramesh, 2012).
It is concluded that CRM has emerged as a famous business strategy in the today’s competitive business. It involves advance and new marketing strategies which not only manage the existing customers but also obtain new customers.
1. Chary T. Satya Narayana & Ramesh, R. (2012). Customer Relationship Management in
Banking Sector- A Comparative Study, KKIMRC IJRHRM, 1 (2), 20-29.
2. Stone, Merlin et al. (2002). The Evolution of CRM in Banking, Publication Kogan Page