Tuesday, 4 August 2015



Knowledge is defined as a link for people who make his/her mind between the application and information in a confined place. Knowledge occurs by the value that is added to the organization by categorizing, contextualizing and calculating the data. Information is also sometimes termed as knowledge when it is processed in the minds of people. This knowledge is again turned to information when it is communicated to others in the form of text, writing or words.

Characteristics of Knowledge Transfer

 There are many characteristics that affect the transfer of knowledge in an organization; they are classified into two type’s namely situational characteristics and knowledge characteristics. A knowledge characteristic consists of a system user and the receiver by the organization. The risk that is faced by the organization in the transfer of knowledge is termed as stickiness in knowledge or knowledge stickiness. The methods and concepts involved in the process of knowledge transfer results in the stickiness during the construction of knowledge and it is also used to solve the issues while the knowledge is transferred in an organization [Dixon.H, 2000]. The stickiness in the process of knowledge transfer is based upon the following characteristics, they are knowledge character, sender and receiver and the growth between the sender and receiver [Wang et al, 2001]. While knowledge transfer is taking place, the above aspects are important to handle the stickiness carefully in order to enhance the process of knowledge transfer successfully.
The factors that affect the situational characteristics are source, recipient and the organizational context in an organization. The knowledge source is the initial factor of the process and their main aim is to transfer the knowledge since it is the most important factor for the success of an organization [Ghaziri .M, 2004]. Another aspect of the source which affects the transfer is the reliability of the knowledge transfer. The final source of aspect in situational characteristics is to complete the process of knowledge transfer.


Thus the knowledge transfer is the concept and fact that are present in the people’s minds. Knowledge transfer also aims at the process of communication that involves both information transmissions to the recipient and sender by a group or person in the organization. Therefore it is revealed from above that the role of knowledge transfer is the ability to act and also it evaluates the new information in an organization.


1. Dixon.H Common Knowledge: How Companies Thrive By Sharing Knowledge, Harvard University Press, Boston, 2000.
2. Awad.E.M and Ghaziri.M (Knowledge Management, Pearson Education, NJ, 2004.
3. Wang et al, Introduction to Knowledge Management: Principles and Practice, Tapir Academic Press, Trondheim, 2001.



Data management is defined as the process in which the data or information undergoes validation, storing, processing and protected in order to satisfy the requirements of the end users. Data is the heart of the information and it acts as a primary source of model through which the entire world is operating. It is also termed as the process of executing the procedures and policies that are needed for the effective management of the information or data.

Emerging Technologies for Effective Data Management

There are many technologies that are used for the effective management of data out of which some important technologies are discussed here. The first technology is the Usage of programs that are scripted for the analysis of data or information. In this method the data is thoroughly processed and analyzed to provide a metadata .In this technique the data can be revised at any point of time since a record will be created from the time of data collected till the publish [Gordon.K, 2007]. The second technology is the storage of data in the form of non proprietary software and hardware. In this technique the data stored will remain for many decades even when the software is lost. But if the data is stored in proprietary software or hardware the data will disappear if the software is lost and it is difficult to open the files [Mehdi.K, 1998]. The third method used for the effective data management is the usage of descriptive names for the files that contain data [Mathew.B, 2001]. This technique is the quickest way to represent the data in the file. This method consists of two approaches to be followed for effective management of data namely the first one is that the file name should not be long and the second one is that there should be space between the file names.


Thus from the above technologies mentioned it is revealed that the data can be effectively managed and it can be made free from errors and it also can be structured still more effectively for the analysis process. More importantly it is more interpretable for future research and for the management of the data. Hence these technologies are very useful to revise the data even in future and it can also be used for research purposes for many decades.


1.      Gordon.K Principles of Effective Data Management, British Informatics Society Limited, UK, 2007.

2.      Mathew.B Effective Management Of Data, California University, CA, 2001

3.      Mehdi.K Effective Data Management and Emerging Technologies, Idea Publishing, New York, 1998


Ratio is a term which indicates the association between any of the two inter - connected variables. That is, the ratios use to institute the association among two items that are stated in quantitative form. The ratio analysis is the analysis of financial statements (balance sheet, profit and loss statement, cash flow statement etc.) of the firms of a specific period and interpreting of financial results with the assistance of available ratios. In finance, a ratio is termed as an association between 2 numbers of similar type which generally uttered as a: b or ‘a to b’.
Ratio analysis
In ratio analysis, the financial ratios act as a tool. The required data for the ratio analysis used to be gathered from the financial statements of the firm. Generally, the ratio analyses are used to determine the financial safety and financial condition of a firm. The ratio analysis is considered as an essential technique to institute the association between two accounting numbers in order to highlight the important data to the management and the users who could assess the condition of the business and to view their concert in an expressive way. There are various analyses and researches (for example, Minter et al Eds. 1982; Kumbirai & Webb, 2010) on the use of ratio analysis in evaluating the financial performance of the firms. Added to that, the ratio analysis assists in the firms’ budgeting, long – term planning, strengthening the financial performance through asset management etc.
The ratios in the ratio analysis are classified into various types. They are liquidity ratio or quick ratio or liquid ratio or acid test ratio, solvency or financial structure or capital structure ratio, profitability ratio, activity ratio or efficiency ratio and coverage ratio.
Thus, it is clearly understood that ratio analysis helps in analyzing each and every financial aspect of a firm starting from its assets to liabilities and debt. This helps in understanding the financial condition and complete performance of an entity.
Minter et al Eds. (1982), Using ratio analysis to evaluate financial performance, New Directions for Higher Education, Issue 38, pages 25–38.
Kumbirai & Webb (2010), A financial Ratio Analysis of Commercial Bank Performance in South Africa, African Review of Economics and Finance, Print Services, Rhodes University, Vol. 2, No. 1.